The Nickel Cadmium memory effect – fact or fiction?

In the public debate, the term memory effect may denote a lot of things. But used correctly, it refers only to the second discharge stage of a Ni-Cd cell caused by reversible recrystallization of the cadmium electrode active material. This can be easily prevented by following a few simple rules which should be standard when handling any kind of battery. For more information visit GAZ Academy.


How to Calculate the correct Battery Type and Size?

The easiest way to do so is by using our Battery Sizing Tool.


Which Battery Type should I use for my system?

GAZ’ Standard range consists of 3 different types: KL, KM and KH.  KL (K for Cadmium, or Kadmium in German, and L for low discharge rates) is frequently used for applications with lower discharge rates for longer periods of time (> 2 h) without any load peaks during the discharge process. KH range (H for higher discharge rates) is used for high rates during short periods of discharge time (< 10 min), mainly for starter and generator application. KM range is suitable for mixed loads, i.e. for lower discharge rates connected with some discharge peaks during the load of the battery, for example in switchgear application.


What is the difference between GAZ Ni-Cd batteries Standard range, lomain range and Sol range?

The lomain range features a special fleece separator to extend the maintenance intervals, significantly reducing operational costs. Furthermore, lomain cells can be charged under similar conditions as lead acid batteries, and for that, they can be used as a replacement battery for lead acid batteries.
Sol cells come with an optimized active mass and electrolyte, which, together with the cells’ specific design, provide a high cycling capability for renewable application.


Is the Nickel Cadmium Battery environmentally friendly?

During the operation of the battery within the cells' lifetime, there is risk for neither human health nor the environment when handling the battery according to the manufactur´s recommendations.
Moreover, 99% of the Nickel and Cadmium found in GAZ cells are being recycled if the cells are collected. This figure is far higher than with most other battery technologies, particularly compared to Lead-Acid and Lithium-ion batteries.


Is ventilation of the battery room necessary?

Either natural or forced ventilation is required, though in most cases, there is no requirement for temperature control in the battery room. GAZ provides tailor-fit ventilation calculations to match any application. For more details, try our Battery Sizing Tool.


Do Nickel Cadmium Batteries need a Battery Management System?

Thanks to easy installation and robust technology, it is not necessary to use a Battery Management System for Ni-Cd batteries. The cells can be overcharged during a short period of time and deeply discharged down to 0.0 V without any safety risk or irreversible effect on the battery quality.


What are the possible operation temperatures for Nickel Cadmium?

Our Ni-Cd batteries are designed to withstand temperatures between -40 °C and + 50 °C, and even up to 70 °C for a short period of time. GAZ cells intended for applications in temperatures below -20 °C are filled with a special arctic electrolyte to improve battery performance.


What is the electrolyte density during charge/discharge of Nickel Cadmium cells?

The electrolyte is used for ion exchange, and there is difference of electrolyte density during charge or discharge. Thus, measuring electrolyte density is generally not necessary.


Is the measurement of resistance for quality control of the cells applicable for Nickel Cadmium cells?

The internal resistance of a Ni-Cd cell is very difficult to measure and to define since it varies with different temperatures and states of charge. Based on more than 100 years of experience, we do not recommend using the measurement of internal resistance for any quality checks or status indications. The quality of a battery can be checked by performing a capacity test acc. IEC 60623/62259


Can Nickel Cadmium Cells be deeply discharged?

Yes, it is possible to deeply discharge the Nickel Cadmium batteries down to 0.0 V. There will be no negative effect on the performance and lifetime of the battery. After deeply discharging the battery, a proper charging is necessary.


Why are lomain and Sol cells only available in filled and charged conditions?

The Standard range cells can be delivered in filled/uncharged, unfilled/uncharged and filled/charged conditions. Due to the fleece separator and specific design of the Sol and lomain ranges, these cells can be delivered only in charged/filled conditions.


What is the storage time of Nickel Cadmium cells?

The maximum storage time for filled/charged cells is 12 months and in unfilled/uncharged condition 24 months. A commissioning process is necessary after storage time. See IOM (Installation and Operational Manual) for instructions.


Why should I refill only water in the cells for topping up the electrolyte level?

The electrolyte of Nickel Cadmium cells consists of a solution of potassium hydroxide. During operation, the electrolyte level decreases due to the electrolysis of the water. Therefore, only deionized, or distilled water must be used for topping up the electrolyte level. The use of the potassium hydroxide solution must be avoided as this would likely increase electrolyte density.


Can I mix new and old batteries?

It is important to verify the state of the original battery in each specific case. It is important to note that mixing very old with brand new cells is usually problematic as it will likely cause an SOC (State of Charge) imbalance in the battery. Please feel free to contact a GAZ representative for support.


Can I mix different cell types in one battery?

This is not possible, as all cells within the battery must be homogenous to prevent imbalances.


Where should Nickel Cadmium Batteries be stored?

The optimal storage conditions of Ni-Cd batteries are in a dry place at 20 ± 5 °C, equipped with a transportation vent as the room should be well ventilated. Since the cells are likely to be delivered wrapped in a wrapping foil for transportation, please make sure this is removed for prolonged storage periods.

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